Study warns Diphtheria could become a major global threat

In a new health scare, a team of researchers from
India, the UK and Russia, has found that Diphtheria, which is a relatively easily-preventable
infection, has started to become resistant to several classes of antibiotics, and in future, it may
even become immune to vaccination.
In a report, the team has also suggested that there was a possibility of the disease once more
becoming a major threat across the globe because of the impact of COVID-19 on vaccination
schedules in different parts of the world, coupled with a rise in the number of infections.
Diphtheria is a highly contagious infection. It can affect the nose and throat, and sometimes
the skin. If left untreated it can prove fatal. In high-income countries, all babies are
vaccinated against the infection. However, in low- and middle-income countries, the disease
can still cause sporadic infections or outbreaks in unvaccinated and partially-vaccinated
communities.
The number of diphtheria cases reported globally has been increasing gradually. In 2018,
there were 16,651 reported cases, more than double the yearly average for 1996-2017 (8,105
cases).
Diphtheria is primarily caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae and is mainly
spread by coughs and sneezes, or through close contact with someone infected. In most cases,
the bacteria cause acute infections, driven by the diphtheria toxin – the key target of the
vaccine. However, non-toxigenic C. diphtheria can also cause disease, often in the form of
systemic infections.
The researchers used genomics to map the infections, including a subset from India, where
over half of the globally reported cases occurred in 2018. By analysing the genomes of 61
bacteria isolated from patients and combining these with 441 publicly available genomes that
had been collected from across the world over 122 years (1896-2018), they build a
phylogenetic tree – a genetic ‘family tree’ – to see how the infections are related, understand
how they spread and assess the presence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes and
determine toxin variation.
The main disease-causing component of C. diphtheriae is the diphtheria toxin, which is
encoded by the tox’ gene. It is this component that is targeted by vaccines. In total, the researchers found 18 different variants of thetox’ gene, of which several had the potential to
change the structure of the toxin.

Diphtheria infections can usually be treated with several classes of antibiotics. While C.
diphtheriae’s resistance to antibiotics have been reported, the extent of such resistance
remains largely unknown.
The team looked for genes that might confer some degree of resistance to antimicrobials and
they found that the average number of antimicrobial resistance genes per genome was
increasing each decade. Genomes of bacteria isolated from infections from the most recent
decade (2010-19) showed the highest average number of AMR genes per genome, almost
four times as many on average than in the next highest decade, which was the 1990s.
In a report on their study published in Nature Communication today, the team said, “While
our data does not, at present, highlight any efficacy concern in the currently used tox variant
type 16 based diphtheria toxoid vaccine, the continually increasing toxin diversity and
prevalence of non-toxigenic strains do however forecast a real possibility of vaccine escape
and antitoxin treatment failure in future. While the current vaccine against diphtheria
continues to remain largely effective, it is vital to conduct further in vitro and in vivo
studies”.
The researchers were drawn from the Department of Biotechnology’s Translational Health
Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, Maharishi Valmiki Infectious Diseases
Hospital, Delhi, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, World Health
Organization, New Delhi, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, Cambridge
Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease, University of Cambridge,
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK, Gabrichevsky Research Institute for
Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon
Tyne, UK.