Manusmriti is Varna-neutral – 12

Manusmriti  is the most enlightened, perfect and the greatest civil code ever known to humanity.

 In this series only those Sloka-s have been selected for exposition that confront all misgivings / untrue perceptions about the wisdom of Manusmriti  prevailing all around and facilitate accurate interpretation.

 Subhasubhaphalam Karma Manovagdehasambhavam  I

Karmaja Gatayo Nrinamuttamadhamamadhyamaha  II XII / 1 II

SubhaAsubha  Karma-s enacted through ManaVacana  and Sarira  invite UttamaMadhyama  and Adhama  destinies.

 Subha  and Asubha Karma-s are the noble and ignoble ones respectively that are enacted, prompted by unredeemed Samskara-s while ManaVacana  and Sarira  i.e. mind, utterances and gross body respectively, are the instruments with which Karma-s are enacted. These Karma-s enacted on grosser planes of existence are redeemed on subtle as well as gross planes of existence. Intensity and nature of these Karma-s also decide destiny to come, nature of next embodiment and Karmaphala-s i.e. proceeds of Karma-s enacted, to be undergone. Based on the Karma-s enacted, three orders of destinies UttamaMadhyama  and Adhama  i.e. highly accomplished, medium and ignoble respectively have been identified by Maharsi Manu.

Paradravyesvabhidhyanam Manasanistacintanam  I

Vitathabhinivesasca Trividham Karma Manasam  II XII / 3 II

Desire to purloin, wishing ill unto others and dubious resolves constitute ignoble Karma-s on subtle plane.

 Mind is the subtle plane of enacting subtle Karma-s that may motivate one to proceed onto grosser planes of action. Subtle or mental Karma  may be nurturing desire to steal, wishing and praying for some one to suffer out of sheer aversion or jealousy. It may even be a resolve that ever remains unredeemed causing discomfiture or embarrassment to some etc. Subtle Karma-s even if not transformed into gross actions, affect several others directly or indirectly. Hence, these are very much Karma-s, must be redeemed appropriately.

Parusyamanratam Caiva Paisunyam Capi Sarvasaha  I

Asambaddhapralapasca Vangamayam Syaccaturvidham  II XII / 4 II

ParusyaAnrataPaisunya  and Asambaddha  are the four orders of Karma-s enacted through Vacana.

 Vacana  i.e speech is another instrument of action. Karma-s that may be undertaken through Vacana  are Parusya  i.e. invocation of harsh expressions even if these are true, Anrata  i.e. utter falsification and Paisunya  i.e. calumny in absentia and finally Asambaddha  i.e. indulgence with utter irrelevance. After ManaVacana  is the second subtle instrumentality of action that be invoked to enact Karma-s on subtle plane alone.

Adattanamupadanam Himsa Caivavidhanataha  I

Paradaropaseva Ca Sariram Trividham Smratam  II XII / 5 II

Thievery, violence and promiscuity constitute evil Karma-s of Sarira.

 Gross body is capable of performing evil Karma-s like purloining other’s possessions, violence to hurt others and promiscuity with other women. These Karma-s are felonious and invite stringent retribution through destiny.

Manasam Manasaivayamupabhumkte Subhasubham  I

Vaca Vacakrtam Karma Kayenaiva Ca Kayikam  II XII / 6 II

Karma-s enacted through ManaVacana  and Sarira  invite Karmaphala  through ManaVacana  and Sarira  respectively.

 Plane on which Karma  is enacted is also the very plane of consciousness on which Karmaphala  thereof, fructifies. Mental Karma  invites mental retribution, Karma  through speech invites spoken retribution while physical Karma  enacted, invites physical retribution. Such a compatibility ensures, every Karma  enacted encounters and matches it’s Karmaphala  appropriately and redeemed effectively.

Yo Yadesam Guno Dehe Sakalyenatiricyate  I

Sa Tada Tadgunaprayam Tam Karoti Saririnam  II XII / 9 II

Guna  in abundance in Sarira  renders it similar to itself.

 Three Guna-s i.e. SattvaRaja  and Tama  influence course of cosmic movement of Jiva  through the world. The Guna  in abundance in Sarira  influences it to transform itself in harmony itself. For instance, in Sattva  abundant SariraSarira  would become Sattvika  i.e. Sattva  like. Similar is the case of other two Guna-s too i.e. Raja  and Tama. Abundance of Raja  would render Sarira Rajasika  while Tamasika  in the case of Tama Guna.

 Yatkarma Krtva Kurvamsca Karisyanscaiva Lajjati  I

Tajjneyam Vidusa Sarvam Tamasam Gunalaksanam  II XII / 19 II

Intended Karma  if poised to cause aversion and revulsion in one’s inner being, one is imbued with Tama.

 If Karma-s that one intends to enact, are likely to invite embarrassment, shame and opprobrium, then the Karma-s are in all likelihood, Tamasika  and the proposer of those Karma-s, a Tamasika  person. Indeed, it is an authentic way of self-examination whether one is a person of Tamasika  traits in abundance.

 Yenasminkarmana Loke Khyatimicchati Puskalam  I

Na Ca Socatyasampattau Tadvijneyam Tu Rajasam  II XII / 20 II

If intended Karma-s inspired by the desire to attain fame, lead to extravagance in spite of being a pauper, one is Rajasika  by disposition.

 Rajasika  traits demand fame, wealth and power. Individuals endowed with abundance of Rajasika  traits are seekers of these possessions. Drive to attain these may be so vehement under the influence of Rajas  that no extravagance is eschewed even if the Rajasika  one happens to be a pauper eventually.

 Yatsarvenecchati Jnatunyanna Lajjati Cacaran  I

Yena Tusyati Catmaasya Tatsatvagunalaksanam  II XII / 21 II

If eager to learn from others, imbibe all virtues, not ashamed in actions and pursues what exhilarates Atma, one is Sattvika  in disposition.

 Those endowed with abundance of Sattvika  traits too, have unique characteristics. They are ever eager to learn more from others, assimilate virtues and piety from all those who have these in abundance. Sattvika  ones are disposed to enact only those Karma-s that bring about bliss unto their Souls. They are stridently inclined towards asceticism and Adhyatmika  pursuits alone.

 Sarvabhutesu Catmanam Sarvabhutani Catmani  I

Samam Pasyannatmayaji Svarajyamadhigacchati  II XII / 43 II

One who perceives the Absolute Entity being omni-existent everywhere including oneself, is attained to the ultimate abode.

 Paramatma  is the Absolute Entity who exists everywhere in the entire cosmos including all animate beings. One who perceives Paramatma  in all beings being all-pervasive, is the one who incessantly remains vested and blissed within His Absolute Being. Such a blessed one is ultimately, attained to Him while constantly practising Dharana  and Dhyana  on Him. Thus, universalism attained by the enlightened one expands unto universalism of the Absolute One.

 Yathoktanyapi Karmani Parihaya Dvijottamaha  I

Atmajnane Same Ca Syadvedabhyase Ca Yatnavan  II XII / 44 II

Accomplished Dvija-s, even after renouncing all Karma-s, may remain vested in the Absolute Wisdom, asceticism and pursuit of Veda-s.

 The enlightened Dvija-s who have renounced all their Karma-s while being vested in the bliss of Paramatma, are ordained to continue pursuing Veda-s and other mandates of asceticism. Pursuit of Adhyatma  is a continuous voyage for all. It is never a safe harbour to rest even for the highly advanced ones lest decline sets in sooner than later.

Caturvarnyam Trayo Lokascatvarascasramaha Prthak  I

Bhutam Bhavyam Bhavisyam Ca Sarvam Vedatprasiddhyati  II XII / 49 II

Veda-s alone constitute origin of four Varna-s, three Loka-s, four Asrama-s; BhutaBhavisyaVartamana  and their governance.

 Four Veda-s are consecrated as repositories of entire Vedanta  wisdom involving Varna-s as expounded in Manusmriti; three Loka-s i.e. planes of existence and other celestial bodies; Asrama-s of BrahmacaryaGrihasthaVanaprastha  and Sannyasa; entire knowledge about all events in BhutaBhavisya  and that of Vartamana  i.e. past, future  and present. Entire Sanatana Vedanta Darsana  is enshrined in Veda-s. Being fountain of entire wisdom, innumerable streams and rivulets have flown out in various directions with dedicated objectives and missions to be pursued ardently.

 Yatha Jatabalo Vanhirdahatyardranapi Druman  I

Tatha Dahati Vedajnaha Karmajam Dosamatmanaha  II XII / 53 II

As blazing fire turns even sodden wood into ashes, VedaJnana  obliterates entire KarmaDosa.

 Wisdom enshrined in Veda-s is the VedaJnana  and Samskara-s i.e. imprints of Karma-s enacted are KarmaDosa. All such Samskara-s must be dissolved through redemption and consummation to re-attain pristine pure divinity of Atma. Unless all Samskara-s are completely dissolved and absolute purity re-established, ultimate emancipation is impossible to be attained. VedaJnana  is capable to dissolving all Samskara-s the way blazing fire incinerates even a piece of sodden wood into ashes. The raft of VedaJnana  ferries the worst sinner to liberation from Karma-s.

 Tapo Vidya Ca Viprasya Nihsreyasakaram Param  I

Tapasa Kilvisam Hanti Vidyayaamrutamasnute  II XII / 55 II

Tapa  and Vidya  facilitate liberation of Vipra-s most. Tapa  dissolves evil intentions while Vidya, invites immortality.

 Vipra  is a Brahmana  engaged in pursuits of Tapa  i.e. asceticism and Vidya  i.e. wisdom. These two i.e. Tapa  and Vidya  are the highest orders of ascetic pursuits being most powerful and effective. Pursuit of Tapa  dissolves all traces of evil intentions and desires of regressive Karma-s while Vidya  leads one to immortality. Self study of Vidya  is also known as Svadhyaya  that dissolves all Samskara-s and divine purity of Atma  is restored.

 Avratanamamantranam Jatimatropajivinam  I

Sahasrasaha Sametanam Parisatvam Na Vidyate  II XII / 64 II

Those devoid of Vrata  belong to lower orders by birth. Even thousands of them are not eligible to constitute an institution.

 Herein, Vrata  refers to entire spectrum of ascetic pursuits, learning and other Vedic  practices. One cannot confer upon oneself any specified Varna  merely on the basis of birth in a family alone. One ought to strive intensely to be able to qualify for the same. Those devoid of Vrata  are entirely inconsequential and any number of them cannot congregate to constitute an influential institution to reckon with.

 Sarvamatmani Sampasyetsaccasacca Samahitaha  I

Sarvam Hyatmani Sampasyannadharme Kurute Manaha  II XII / 67 II

The enlightened one who perceives Sat  and Asat  in Paramatma, may never be inclined towards Adharma  as he holds Him, omniscient.

 Sat  is the Real, Asat  is the unreal and Adharma, utter absence of righteousness. Enlightened ones are endowed with VivekaJnana  i.e. discriminative wisdom by virtue of which they perceive Sat  and Asat  discriminatively. They are the ones who effectively eschew Asat  while incessantly pursuing Sat. Blessed with such a discriminative pursuit, they are never inclined towards Adharma  as they perceive all beings existing within the Being of Paramatma  including themselves.

 Atmaiva Devatah Sarvah Sarvamatmanyavasthitam  I

Atma Hi Janayatyesam Karmayogam Saririnam  II XII / 68 II

Paramatma  alone governs all Deva-s, Karmaphala  for all beings and holds the universe within His Being.

 Paramatma  is the Supreme Absolute, highest of all entities vested with all possible, conceivable faculties and attributes. Entire universe is existing within His being and He governs celestial activities of all Deva-s on their subtle plane of existence. Karma-s enacted by all beings and respective Karmaphala-s are governed and administered by Him alone.

Prasasitaram Sarvesamaniyamasamanorapi  I 

Rukmabham Svapnadhigamyam Viddyattam Purusam Param  II XII / 69 II  

That who governs all, exists as subtle to subtlest, Self-effulgent, perceivable only in the state of Samadhi, be cognised as Paramatma.  

 Paramatma  is the Supreme Absolute as He governs entire universe and all it’s activities. He is omni-existent as he pervades all planes of existence from subtle to subtlest. Paramatma  is Self-Effulgent as He does not require any other source of effulgence being the ultimate source of effulgence Himself. Being so subtle, rather subtlest, he is impossible to be perceived through gross senses of a Seer. He is perceptible and cognisable only through subtle consciousness by highly advanced Seers in the state of Samadhi. Owing to His ultimate subtlety, He is omni-present and immortal.

 Etameke Vadantyagnim Manumanye Prajapatim  I

Indrameke Pare Pranamapare Brahma Sasvatam  II XII / 70 II

This One is variously known as AgniManuIndraPrana  or even Brahma, by some.

 The Supreme, Absolute One is the Ultimate One alone. Since He encompasses all attributes and faculties, he is perceived and cognised variously by all based on their propensities, inclinations and mode of adorations. He may be called AgniManuIndraPranaBrahma  etc. owing to all their functions being vested in Him ultimately.

Evam Yaha Sarvabhutesu Pasyatyatmanamatmana  I

Sa Sarvasamatametya Brahmabhyeti Param Padam  II XII / 72 II  

Thus, the one who perceives Paramatma  in all beings, regards all as one’s equal, attains the highest accolade of Param Brahma.

 First and foremost attribute of Supreme Divinity is to regard everyone as His equal as He identifies everyone with Himself in absolute terms. Such a perfect identification with all beings renders Him ubiquitous and all pervasive. In absence of these attributes, no one may be eligible to be privileged with the glory of being Paramatma.

All these injunctions and mandates are entirely Varna-neutral.

Thus we conclude the series Manusmriti  Is Varna  Neutral.

 

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